Send to

Choose Destination
Patient Prefer Adherence. 2012;6:631-41. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S35840. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Development of a men's Preference for Testosterone Replacement Therapy (P-TRT) instrument.

Author information

Ohio State University, College of Pharmacy, Columbus, OH, USA.



This study used a standard research approach to create a final conceptual model and the Preference for the Testosterone Replacement Therapy (P-TRT) instrument.


A discussion guide was developed from a literature review and expert opinion to direct one-on-one interviews with participants who used testosterone replacement therapy and consented to participate in the study. Data from telephone interviews were transcribed for theme analysis using NVivo 9 qualitative analysis software, analyzed descriptively from a saturation grid, and used to evaluate men's P-TRT. Data from cognitive debriefing for five participants were used to evaluate the final conceptual model and validate the initial P-TRT instrument.


Item saturation and theme exhaustion was achieved by 58 male participants of mean age 55.0 ± 10.0 (22-69) years who had used testosterone replacement therapy for a mean of 175.0 ± 299.2 days. The conceptual model was developed from items and themes obtained from the participant interviews and saturation grid. Items comprising eight dimensions were used for instrument development, ie, ease of use, effect on libido, product characteristics, physiological impact, psychological impact, side effects, treatment experience, and preference. Results from the testosterone replacement therapy preference evaluation provide a detailed insight into why most men preferred a topical gel product over an injection or patch.


Items and themes relating to use of testosterone replacement therapy were in concordance with the final conceptual model and 29-item P-TRT instrument. The standard research approach used in this study produced the P-TRT instrument, which is suitable for further psychometric development and use in clinical practice.


hormones; hypogonadism; outcome assessment; patient preference; testosterone

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Dove Medical Press Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center