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Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2012 Dec;22(6):1075-81. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2012.08.003. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

The ubiquity of model-based reinforcement learning.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

Abstract

The reward prediction error (RPE) theory of dopamine (DA) function has enjoyed great success in the neuroscience of learning and decision-making. This theory is derived from model-free reinforcement learning (RL), in which choices are made simply on the basis of previously realized rewards. Recently, attention has turned to correlates of more flexible, albeit computationally complex, model-based methods in the brain. These methods are distinguished from model-free learning by their evaluation of candidate actions using expected future outcomes according to a world model. Puzzlingly, signatures from these computations seem to be pervasive in the very same regions previously thought to support model-free learning. Here, we review recent behavioral and neural evidence about these two systems, in attempt to reconcile their enigmatic cohabitation in the brain.

PMID:
22959354
PMCID:
PMC3513648
DOI:
10.1016/j.conb.2012.08.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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