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Immunol Res. 2013 Mar;55(1-3):270-6. doi: 10.1007/s12026-012-8367-6.

Type 1 diabetes: primary antigen/peptide/register/trimolecular complex.

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Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.


Type 1A diabetes (autoimmune) is now immunologically predictable in man, but preventable only in animal models. What triggers the development of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals remains unknown. Studies of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice reveal that interactions between T-cell receptors of diabetogenic T cell and an MHC class II loaded with an autoantigen are key determinates of the disease. With insulin as the primary target in the NOD mouse, likely man, and possibly the RT1-U rat models, therapeutic targeting of the components of these anti-insulin trimolecular complexes we believe provide a fulcrum for development of preventive therapy. In particular for the NOD mouse model, there is extensive evidence that the dominant insulin peptide driving disease initiation is insulin B chain amino acids 9-23 (SHLVEALYLVCGERG) recognized predominantly by germ-line sequences of a specific T-cell receptor Valpha (TRAV5D-4), and small molecules or monoclonal antibodies directed at this recognition complex can prevent diabetes.

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