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Inhal Toxicol. 2012 Sep;24(11):689-97. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2012.712164.

Cardiopulmonary response to inhalation of secondary organic aerosol derived from gas-phase oxidation of toluene.

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Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA.


The biological response to inhalation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was determined in rodents exposed to SOA derived from the oxidation of toluene, a precursor emitted from anthropogenic sources. SOA atmospheres were produced to yield 300 µg·m(-3) of particulate matter (PM) plus accompanying gases. Whole-body exposures were conducted in mice to assess both pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. ApoE(-/-) mice were exposed for 7 days and measurements of TBARS and gene expression of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were made in aorta. Pulmonary inflammatory responses in both species were measured by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts. No pulmonary inflammation was observed. A mild response was observed in mouse aorta for the upregulation of ET-1 and HO-1, with a trend for increased MMP-9 and TBARS, and. Overall, toluene-derived SOA revealed limited biological response compared with previous studies using this exposure protocol with other environmental pollutants.

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