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Future Microbiol. 2012 Sep;7(9):1073-100. doi: 10.2217/fmb.12.80.

Moraxella catarrhalis: from interactions with the host immune system to vaccine development.

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Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine Malmö, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.


Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted commensal that over the last two decades has developed into an emerging respiratory tract pathogen. The bacterial species is equipped with various adhesins to facilitate its colonization. Successful evasion of the human immune system is a prerequisite for Moraxella infection. This strategy involves induction of an excessive proinflammatory response, intervention of granulocyte recruitment to the infection site, activation of selected pattern recognition receptors and cellular adhesion molecules to counteract the host bacteriolytic attack, as well as, finally, reprogramming of antigen presenting cells. Host immunomodulator molecules are also exploited by Moraxella to aid in resistance against complement killing and host bactericidal molecules. Thus, breaking the basis of Moraxella immune evasion mechanisms is fundamental for future invention of effective therapy in controlling Moraxella infection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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