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PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43833. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043833. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) slows cancer development but increases metastases in TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice.

Author information

1
St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract

Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15), a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily, is over-expressed by many common cancers including those of the prostate (PCa) and its expression is linked to cancer outcome. We have evaluated the effect of MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression on PCa development and spread in the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer. TRAMP mice were crossed with MIC-1/GDF15 overexpressing mice (MIC-1(fms)) to produce syngeneic TRAMP(fmsmic-1) mice. Survival rate, prostate tumor size, histopathological grades and extent of distant organ metastases were compared. Metastasis of TC1-T5, an androgen independent TRAMP cell line that lacks MIC-1/GDF15 expression, was compared by injecting intravenously into MIC-1(fms) and syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Whilst TRAMP(fmsmic-1) survived on average 7.4 weeks longer, had significantly smaller genitourinary (GU) tumors and lower PCa histopathological grades than TRAMP mice, more of these mice developed distant organ metastases. Additionally, a higher number of TC1-T5 lung tumor colonies were observed in MIC-1(fms) mice than syngeneic WT C57BL/6 mice. Our studies strongly suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 has complex actions on tumor behavior: it limits local tumor growth but may with advancing disease, promote metastases. As MIC-1/GDF15 is induced by all cancer treatments and metastasis is the major cause of cancer treatment failure and cancer deaths, these results, if applicable to humans, may have a direct impact on patient care.

PMID:
22952779
PMCID:
PMC3428289
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0043833
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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