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J Child Neurol. 2013 Oct;28(10):1215-21. doi: 10.1177/0883073812455693. Epub 2012 Sep 4.

Long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of children with congenital muscular torticollis.

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1Child Development & Pediatric Neurology Service, Meuhedet-Northern Region, Haifa, Israel.


Congenital muscular torticollis is a common condition, but long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up is lacking. This study reports on neurodevelopmental outcome of 68 children, aged 7 to 9 years, with a history of congenital muscular torticollis, excluding children with torticollis due to other conditions. Thirty-eight children were examined for presence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Telephone interview data were available for an additional 30 children. Of those examined, 22/38 (57.9%) had or were at risk for a developmental disorder (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental coordination disorder, language impairment, autistic spectrum disorder) on at least 1 of the assessments administered, 23/38 (60.5%) had received developmental treatment during childhood. One child, based on a telephone interview, had a history of developmental treatment. Therefore, 30/68 (44.1%) children of the total sample demonstrated a developmental delay/disorder, currently (22/68) or previously (8/68). Our findings suggest congenital muscular torticollis to be a significant risk factor for later neurodevelopmental conditions with disorders presenting at different stages of development.


ADHD; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; developmental coordination disorder; torticollis

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