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Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;96(4):855-63. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

Choline intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer: incidence and survival.

Author information

1
Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. richmane@urology.ucsf.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Meat, milk, and eggs have been inconsistently associated with the risk of advanced prostate cancer. These foods are sources of choline-a nutrient that may affect prostate cancer progression through cell membrane function and one-carbon metabolism. No study has examined dietary choline and the risk of lethal prostate cancer.

OBJECTIVE:

Our objective was to examine whether dietary choline, choline-containing compounds, and betaine (a choline metabolite) increase the risk of lethal prostate cancer.

DESIGN:

We prospectively examined the intake of these nutrients and the risk of lethal prostate cancer among 47,896 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. In a case-only survival analysis, we examined the postdiagnostic intake of these nutrients and the risk of lethal prostate cancer among 4282 men with an initial diagnosis of nonmetastatic disease during follow-up. Diet was assessed with a validated questionnaire 6 times during 22 y of follow-up.

RESULTS:

In the incidence analysis, we observed 695 lethal prostate cancers during 879,627 person-years. Men in the highest quintile of choline intake had a 70% increased risk of lethal prostate cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.45; P-trend = 0.005). In the case-only survival analysis, we observed 271 lethal cases during 33,679 person-years. Postdiagnostic choline intake was not statistically significantly associated with the risk of lethal prostate cancer (HR for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 1.69; 95% CI: 0.93, 3.09; P-trend = 0.20).

CONCLUSION:

Of the 47,896 men in our study population, choline intake was associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer.

PMID:
22952174
PMCID:
PMC3441112
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.112.039784
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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