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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Oct;92(4):467-75. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2012.120. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

Pharmacogenomics and individualized medicine: translating science into practice.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.


Research on genes and medications has advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of individual drug responses. The aim of pharmacogenomics is to develop strategies for individualizing therapy for patients, in order to optimize outcome through knowledge of the variability of the human genome and its influence on drug response. Pharmacogenomics research is translational in nature and ranges from discovery of genotype-phenotype relationships to clinical trials that can provide proof of clinical impact. Advances in pharmacogenomics offer significant potential for subsequent clinical application in individual patients; however, the translation of pharmacogenomics research findings into clinical practice has been slow. Key components to successful clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics will include consistent interpretation of pharmacogenomics test results, availability of clinical guidelines for prescribing on the basis of test results, and knowledge-based decision support systems.

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