Send to

Choose Destination
Microbiol Immunol. 2012 Dec;56(12):855-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2012.00507.x.

Epidemiology of parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 infections based on virus isolation between 2002 and 2011 in Yamagata, Japan.

Author information

Department of Microbiology, Yamagata Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-0031, Japan.


To clarify the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs), 305 human parainfluenza virus types 1 (HPIV1), 154 HPIV2 and 574 HPIV3 strains were isolated from 16,962 nasopharyngeal swabs obtained between 2002 and 2011 at pediatric clinics in Yamagata, Japan. The total isolation frequency for HPIV1-3 was 6.1%. Unlike HPIV1 infections, HPIV3 showed clear seasonality with yearly outbreaks in the spring-summer season. HPIV2 tended to appear biannually in autumn-winter. Although no reliable techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of these infections have been established, the present results suggest that HPIV1-3 are an important causative agent of ARIs in children.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center