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Neurosurgery. 1990 Jan;26(1):93-101.

Combined use of subdural and intracerebral electrodes in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy.

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Department of Neurosurgery and Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands.


For intracranial recording of partial seizures considered to originate from one of the temporal or frontal lobes, the team in the Utrecht Academic Hospital has used subdural, multicontact, flexible electrodes since 1972. These are introduced through bilateral, frontocentral trephine holes and are manipulated under fluoroscopy to cover most of the cerebral convexity. It became evident that in many patients, additional placements to record from intracerebral structures were indispensable. Therefore, using the same trephine holes, an additional 2 to 4 depth electrodes were stereotactically implanted in the mesial temporal and/or frontal structures, as appropriate. An extensive intra- and extracerebral spatial representation of the epileptogenic zone was thus obtained. We report here the methods for manufacturing and applying these electrodes and our clinical experience with 28 patients. The results obtained so far stress the value of combining subdural and depth electroencephalographic monitoring in the presurgical selection of patients suffering from medically refractory complex partial seizures. By miniaturizing the electrodes, extensive areas of the brain can be investigated without craniotomy or multiple burr holes.

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