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Biol Chem. 2012 Sep;393(9):899-905. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2012-0140.

Processive proteolysis by γ-secretase and the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, H.I.M. 754, Boston, MA 02115, USA. mwolfe@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Abstract

γ-Secretase is a membrane-embedded protease complex with presenilin as the catalytic component. Cleavage within the transmembrane domain of the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) by γ-secretase produces the C-terminus of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic product prone to aggregation and strongly linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presenilin mutations are associated with early-onset AD, but their pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis is that these mutations cause AD through a toxic gain of function, changing γ-secretase activity to increase the proportion of 42-residue Aβ over the more soluble 40-residue form. A competing hypothesis is that the mutations cause AD through a loss of function, by reducing γ-secretase activity. However, γ-secretase apparently has two types of activities, an endoproteolytic function that first cuts APP to generate a 48/49-residue form of Aβ, and a carboxypeptidase activity that processively trims these longer Aβ intermediates approximately every three residues to form shorter, secreted forms. Recent studies suggest a resolution of the gain-of-function vs. loss-of-function debate: presenilin mutations may increase the proportion of longer, more aggregation-prone Aβ by specifically decreasing the trimming activity of γ-secretase. That is, the reduction of this particular proteolytic function of presenilin, not its endoproteolytic activity, may lead to the neurotoxic gain of function.

PMID:
22944690
DOI:
10.1515/hsz-2012-0140
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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