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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012 Oct;10(10):705-15. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2834. Epub 2012 Sep 3.

Distribution, formation and regulation of gas vesicles.

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1
Technische Universit├Ąt Darmstadt, Fachbereich Biologie, Darmstadt, Germany. pfeifer@bio.tu.darmstadt.de

Abstract

A range of bacteria and archaea produce intracellular gas-filled proteinaceous structures that function as flotation devices in order to maintain a suitable depth in the aqueous environment. The wall of these gas vesicles is freely permeable to gas molecules and is composed of a small hydrophobic protein, GvpA, which forms a single-layer wall. In addition, several minor structural, accessory or regulatory proteins are required for gas vesicle formation. In different organisms, 8-14 genes encoding gas vesicle proteins have been identified, and their expression has been shown to be regulated by environmental factors. In this Review, I describe the basic properties of gas vesicles, the genes that encode them and how their production is regulated. I also discuss the function of these vesicles and the initial attempts to exploit them for biotechnological purposes.

PMID:
22941504
DOI:
10.1038/nrmicro2834
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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