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Front Physiol. 2012 Jul 19;3:292. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00292. eCollection 2012.

Advanced glycation end product cross-link breaker attenuates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by improving sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling.

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1
College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA.

Abstract

Diabetic heart disease is a distinct clinical entity that can progress to heart failure and sudden death. However, the mechanisms responsible for the alterations in excitation-contraction coupling leading to cardiac dysfunction during diabetes are not well known. Hyperglycemia, the landmark of diabetes, leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on long-lived proteins, including sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) regulatory proteins. However, their pathogenic role on SR Ca(2+) handling in cardiac myocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether an AGE cross-link breaker could prevent the alterations in SR Ca(2+) cycling that lead to in vivo cardiac dysfunction during diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) for 8 weeks and compared to age-matched placebo-treated diabetic rats and healthy rats. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic examination. Ventricular myocytes were isolated to assess SR Ca(2+) cycling by confocal imaging and quantitative Western blots. Diabetes resulted in in vivo cardiac dysfunction and ALT-711 therapy partially alleviated diastolic dysfunction by decreasing isovolumetric relaxation time and myocardial performance index (MPI) (by 27 and 41% vs. untreated diabetic rats, respectively, P < 0.05). In cardiac myocytes, diabetes-induced prolongation of cytosolic Ca(2+) transient clearance by 43% and decreased SR Ca(2+) load by 25% (P < 0.05); these parameters were partially improved after ALT-711 therapy. SERCA2a and RyR2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the myocardium of untreated diabetic rats (by 64 and 36% vs. controls, respectively, P < 0.05), but preserved in the treated diabetic group compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that, in a model of type 1 diabetes, AGE accumulation primarily impairs SR Ca(2+) reuptake in cardiac myocytes and that long-term treatment with an AGE cross-link breaker partially normalized SR Ca(2+) handling and improved diabetic cardiomyopathy.

KEYWORDS:

alagebrium chloride (ALT-711); cardiomyopathy; diastolic function; sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump; type 1 diabetes

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