Send to

Choose Destination
Crit Care Med. 2012 Nov;40(11):2940-4. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825feb3f.

Prevalence and outcomes of pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the United States: an analysis of the Kids' Inpatient Database*.

Author information

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.



Population-based data on pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the United States are scarce. Single-center studies and voluntary registries may skew the estimated prevalence and outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcomes of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a national scale.


A retrospective analysis of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database was performed. Sample weighting was employed to produce national estimates.


Three thousand seven hundred thirty-nine hospitals in 38 states participating with the Kids' Inpatient Database.


All patients <20 yrs of age hospitalized in participating institutions in 2006.


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed in 5,807 (95% confidence interval 5259-6355) children with prevalence of 0.77 per 1,000 admissions. Most patients (68%) were <1 yr old, and 44% were female. On multivariable analysis, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was associated with respiratory failure (odds ratio 41.5, 95% confidence interval 35.4-48.8), myocarditis (odds ratio 36.6, 95% confidence interval 21.9-61.0), acute renal failure (odds ratio 21.6, 95% confidence interval 17.5-26.7), heart failure (odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 3.0-4.8), and cardiomyopathy (odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 3.2-4.7). Overall mortality was 51.8% and greater among patients ≥1 yr (68%) vs. <1 yr (44%) (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 2.3-3.2). Factors associated with mortality among patients receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation on multivariable analysis included acute renal failure (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.9), hepatic insufficiency (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.4), sepsis (odds ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.4), and congenital heart disease (odds ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.5).


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is performed in approximately one in 1,300 pediatric hospitalizations. Approximately half of patients receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation do not survive to discharge. Independent risk factors for mortality after receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation included congenital heart disease, age ≥1 yr, acute renal failure, hepatic insufficiency, and sepsis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center