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Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Jul;50(7):536-42.

[Effects of glycomacropeptide on damage to intestinal tissue and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis].

[Article in Chinese]

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Department of Neonatology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou, China.



To establish an appropriate neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and to investigate the protective effects of glycomacropeptide (GMP) on the gut from injury in neonatal rats with NEC.


A total of 36 neonatal SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: NEC model group (Group M), NEC + GMP group (Group G) and normal control group (Group N), each group had 12 rats. All the neonatal rats were fed with breast milk in the first 3 days after birth. During the second 3 days after birth, the rats of Group N were still maternal breast-fed, but the rats of Group M and Group G were separated from their mothers and lived in incubator and began to be formula fed, and were subjected to cold exposure shortly after hypoxic-reoxygenation treatment. After being fed in such means for 6 days, all the neonatal rats were placed into the incubator and fasted for 24 hours. Then all the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Intestinal tissue located at the boundary of ileum and cecum was obtained for: (1) histological examination after HE staining, (2) TUNEL detection, (3) electron microscopic observation; and the tissue homogenate was obtained for checking TNF-α and IL-1β levels by ELISA and platelet activating factor (PAF) mRNA expression by quantitative fluorescence (QF)-PCR.


(1) The pathological scores of the 3 groups were 2.17 ± 0.83 (Group M), 0.92 ± 0.79 (Group G) and 0.17 ± 0.39 (Group N) separately. There was significant difference between Group M and Group G (H = 8.819, P = 0.003). (2) TNF-α levels of 3 groups were (41.94 ± 13.51) pg/ml (Group M), (31.69 ± 11.68) pg/ml (Group G) and (17.42 ± 7.18) pg/ml (Group N) separately, and TNF-α level in Group G was significantly lower than that of Group M (F = 3.959, P = 0.030). (3) IL-1β levels of 3 groups were (150.33 ± 36.41) pg/ml (Group M), (118.36 ± 33.00) pg/ml (Group G) and (28.44 ± 15.04) pg/ml (Group N) separately, and IL-1β level in Group G was lower than that of Group M (F = 5.080, P = 0.013). (4) Expression levels of intestinal PAF mRNA (2(-ΔΔCt) value): 3.01 ± 0.96 (Group M), 1.56 ± 0.29 (Group G), 1.01 ± 0.13 (Group N), the level of Group G was significantly lower than that of Group M (F = 25.251, P = 0.000). (5)Electron microscopy: Group N showed that its cell volume was mostly occupied by the nucleus, the structure was clear, nuclear membrane existed, suggesting the normal phase of cell; Group M showed that apoptotic body existed, suggesting that the advanced stage phase of apoptosis; Group G showed that condensed chromatin marginated around the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores expanded, suggesting the early phase of apoptosis. (6) The apoptosis rate of intestinal epithelial cells by TUNEL detection: 38.79 ± 9.79 (Group M), 29.54 ± 7.30 (Group G), 6.37 ± 1.96 (Group N); the apoptosis rate of intestinal epithelial cells of Group G was significantly lower than that of Group M (F = 6.888, P = 0.003).


GMP has protective effects on guts of neonatal rats with NEC, which may probably work by reducing TNF-α, IL-1β and PAF expression, inhibiting the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells and reducing intestinal tissue injury.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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