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J Interpers Violence. 2013 Feb;28(3):558-76. doi: 10.1177/0886260512455511. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a mechanism in the relationship between early sexual victimization and incapacitated/drug-or-alcohol-facilitated and forcible rape.

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Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29412, USA.


Sexual assault occurring when the victim is unable to consent or resist due to the use or administration of alcohol or drugs (i.e., incapacitated/drug-or-alcohol facilitated rape; IR/DAFR) is a particularly prevalent form of victimization experienced by college women. By definition, substance use precedes IR/DAFR; however, few studies have examined other potential risk factors for IR/DAFR that may be unique from those associated with forcible rape (FR; i.e., sexual assault occurring due to threats or physical restraint). The present investigation tested a model of risk for IR/DAFR and FR suggesting that child or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) leads to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which in turn increase the likelihood of IR/DAFR, but not FR. Results revealed full mediation for PTSD hyperarousal symptoms in the pathway between CASA and IR/DAFR, and partial mediation for hyperarousal symptoms in the pathway between CASA and FR. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

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