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J Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;206(8):1299-308. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Quantifying ongoing HIV-1 exposure in HIV-1-serodiscordant couples to identify individuals with potential host resistance to HIV-1.

Author information

1
Department of Global Health, University of Washington, WA, USA. romelm@u.washington.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure.

METHODS:

We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1.

RESULTS:

HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1-infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time.

CONCLUSIONS:

A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1-discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection.

PMID:
22926009
PMCID:
PMC3448964
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jis480
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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