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Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012 Oct;9(10):915-21. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2012.1174. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) juice on foodborne viral surrogates.

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Department of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.


Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most frequent cause of foodborne viral gastroenteritis, causing approximately 90% of non-bacterial epidemic outbreaks around the world. Rubus coreanus is a species of black raspberry, rich in polyphenols, and known to exert anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. In the present study, the antiviral effects of R. coreanus juice (black raspberry [BRB] juice) on foodborne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9), were compared with those of cranberry juice, grape juice, and orange juice by plaque assays. Among the four juices tested, BRB juice was the most effective in reducing plaques formation of these viruses. Time-of-addition experiments were designed to determine the mechanism of action of BRB juice on MNV-1 and FCV-F9. The maximal antiviral effect of BRB juice against MNV-1 was observed when it was added to RAW 264.7 cells (mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line) simultaneously with the virus. Pre-treatment of either Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells or FCV-F9 with BRB juice exhibited significant antiviral activity. The inhibition of viral infection by BRB juice on MNV-1 and FCV-F9 probably occurs at the internalization of virions into the cell or the attachment of the viral surface protein to the cellular receptor. The polyphenol components in BRB (i.e., gallic acid and quercetin), however, did not show any activity against these viruses. Our data provide great promise for the utilization of BRB in the prevention of foodborne viral outbreaks.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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