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Inflammation. 2013 Feb;36(1):152-62. doi: 10.1007/s10753-012-9530-x.

Adenosine A2A receptor and TNF-α regulate the circadian machinery of the human monocytic THP-1 cells.

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Division of Translational Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Erratum in

  • Inflammation. 2013 Feb;36(1):163. Aránzazu, Mediero [corrected to Mediero, Aránzazu].


Morning stiffness and increased symptoms of inflammatory arthritis are among the most common manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), an important mediator of inflammation in RA, regulates the circadian expression of clock proteins, and adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)R) mediate many of the anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic actions of methotrexate, the cornerstone drug in the treatment of RA. We found that A(2A)R activation and TNF-α activated the clock core loop of the human monocytic THP-1 cell line. We further observed that interleukin (IL)-10, but not IL-12, mRNA expression fluctuates in a circadian fashion and that TNF-α and A(2A)R stimulation combined increased IL-10 expression. Interestingly, TNF-α, but not CGS21680, dramatically inhibited IL-12 mRNA expression. The demonstration that A(2A)R and TNF-α regulate the intrinsic circadian clock in immune cells provides an explanation for both the pathologic changes in circadian rhythms in RA and for the adverse circadian effects of methotrexate, such as fatigue.

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