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Nat Med. 2012 Sep;18(9):1386-93.

Infection-induced NETosis is a dynamic process involving neutrophil multitasking in vivo.

Author information

1
Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 2The Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released as neutrophils die in vitro in a process requiring hours, leaving a temporal gap that invasive microbes may exploit. Neutrophils capable of migration and phagocytosis while undergoing NETosis have not been documented. During Gram-positive skin infections, we directly visualized live polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in vivo rapidly releasing NETs, which prevented systemic bacterial dissemination. NETosis occurred during crawling, thereby casting large areas of NETs. NET-releasing PMNs developed diffuse decondensed nuclei, ultimately becoming devoid of DNA. Cells with abnormal nuclei showed unusual crawling behavior highlighted by erratic pseudopods and hyperpolarization consistent with the nucleus being a fulcrum for crawling. A requirement for both Toll-like receptor 2 and complement-mediated opsonization tightly regulated NET release. Additionally, live human PMNs injected into mouse skin developed decondensed nuclei and formed NETS in vivo, and intact anuclear neutrophils were abundant in Gram-positive human abscesses. Therefore early in infection NETosis involves neutrophils that do not undergo lysis and retain the ability to multitask.

Comment in

PMID:
22922410
PMCID:
PMC4529131
DOI:
10.1038/nm.2847
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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