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Med Mycol. 2013 Apr;51(3):225-30. doi: 10.3109/13693786.2012.708107. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Is the incidence of candidemia caused by Candida glabrata increasing in Brazil? Five-year surveillance of Candida bloodstream infection in a university reference hospital in southeast Brazil.

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Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


From 2006 to 2010, a retrospective study was conducted in a university referral tertiary care hospital to study the frequency and distribution of Candida species in different medical specialties. The use of mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter, and urinary catheter were recorded per 1,000 patient-days and the use of antifungals was calculated using defined daily dose (DDD). A total of 313 episodes were identified and the overall incidence was 0.54 (0.41-0.71) episodes per 1,000 patient-days. Candida albicans caused 44% of the overall episodes, followed by C. tropicalis (21.7%), C. parapsilosis (14.4%), C. glabrata (11.2%), and C. krusei (3.5%). The incidence of C. glabrata significantly increased from 2006-2010 (range: 4.8-23.5%) (P = 0.024). Candida glabrata was associated with malignancies (P = 0.004) and C. krusei with hematologic malignancies (P < 0.0001). The use of antifungals was higher in the hematology/bone marrow transplant units and represented 40% of all fluconazole prescription in the hospital. There was no correlation with the use of fluconazole and the increasing ratio of C. glabrata (r = 0.60). The use of invasive devices was significantly higher in the intensive care units (ICUs) than the medical and surgical emergencies units (P < 0.001). In contrast, the emergencies had higher incidence of candidemia (2-2.1 episodes/1,000 patient-days) than the ICUs (1.6 episodes 1,000 patient-days). Candida glabrata candidemia showed a significant increase in contrast to the current national literature where C. parapsilosis remained the most important non-C. albicans Candida species in Brazilian hospitals. Our findings suggested that the increasing incidence of C. glabrata was not associated with use of fluconazole and other risk factors might play an important role.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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