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Curr Cardiol Rev. 2013 Feb 1;9(1):82-96.

Intracardiac origin of heart rate variability, pacemaker funny current and their possible association with critical illness.

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1
Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis University Hospital, Intensive Care Unit, Alexandroupolis Medical School, Dragana 68100, Greece. vapapa@med.duth.gr

Abstract

Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indirect estimator of autonomic modulation of heart rate and is considered a risk marker in critical illness, particularly in heart failure and severe sepsis. A reduced HRV has been found in critically ill patients and has been associated with neuro-autonomic uncoupling or decreased baroreflex sensitivity. However, results from human and animal experimental studies indicate that intracardiac mechanisms might also be responsible for interbeat fluctuations. These studies have demonstrated that different membrane channel proteins and especially the so-called 'funny' current (If), an hyperpolarization-activated, inward current that drives diastolic depolarization resulting in spontaneous activity in cardiac pacemaker cells, are altered during critical illness. Furthermore, membrane channels kinetics seem to have significant impact upon HRV, whose early decrease might reflect a cellular metabolic stress. In this review article we present research findings regarding intracardiac origin of HRV, at the cellular level and in both isolated sinoatrial node and whole ex vivo heart preparations. In addition, we will review results from various experimental studies that support the interrelation between If and HRV during endotoxemia. We suggest that reduced HRV during sepsis could also be associated with altered pacemaker cell membrane properties, due to ionic current remodeling.

PMID:
22920474
PMCID:
PMC3584310
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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