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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Sep 21;53(10):6479-87.

The effect of simultaneous negative and positive defocus on eye growth and development of refractive state in marmosets.

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  • 1SUNY College of Optometry, New York, New York 10036, USA.



We evaluated the effect of imposing negative and positive defocus simultaneously on the eye growth and refractive state of the common marmoset, a New World primate that compensates for either negative and positive defocus when they are imposed individually.


Ten marmosets were reared with multizone contact lenses of alternating powers (-5 diopters [D]/+5 D), 50:50 ratio for average pupil of 2.80 mm over the right eye (experimental) and plano over the fellow eye (control) from 10 to 12 weeks. The effects on refraction (mean spherical equivalent [MSE]) and vitreous chamber depth (VC) were measured and compared to untreated, and -5 D and +5 D single vision contact lens-reared marmosets.


Over the course of the treatment, pupil diameters ranged from 2.26 to 2.76 mm, leading to 1.5 times greater exposure to negative than positive power zones. Despite this, at different intervals during treatment, treated eyes were on average relatively more hyperopic and smaller than controls (experimental-control [exp-con] mean MSE ± SE +1.44 ± 0.45 D, mean VC ± SE -0.05 ± 0.02 mm) and the effects were similar to those in marmosets raised on +5 D single vision contact lenses (exp-con mean MSE ± SE +1.62 ± 0.44 D. mean VC ± SE -0.06 ± 0.03 mm). Six weeks into treatment, the interocular growth rates in multizone animals were already lower than in -5 D-treated animals (multizone -1.0 ± 0.1 μm/day, -5 D +2.1 ± 0.9 μm/day) and did not change significantly throughout treatment.


Imposing hyperopic and myopic defocus simultaneously using concentric contact lenses resulted in relatively smaller and less myopic eyes, despite treated eyes being exposed to a greater percentage of negative defocus. Exposing the retina to combined dioptric powers with multifocal lenses that include positive defocus might be an effective treatment to control myopia development or progression.

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