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Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Nov;167(5):651-62. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0236. Epub 2012 Aug 23.

Prolactinomas resistant to standard doses of cabergoline: a multicenter study of 92 patients.

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1
Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Belgium.

Erratum in

  • Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Dec;167(6):887.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dopamine agonist resistance in prolactinoma is an infrequent phenomenon. Doses of cabergoline (CAB) of up to 2.0 mg/week are usually effective in controlling prolactin (PRL) secretion and reducing tumor size in prolactinomas. The clinical presentation, management, and outcome of patients that are not well controlled by such commonly used doses of CAB-resistant patients are poorly understood.

DESIGN AND METHODS:

A multicenter retrospective study was designed to collect a large series of resistant prolactinoma patients, defined by uncontrolled hyperprolactinemia on CAB ≥2.0 mg weekly.

RESULTS:

Ninety-two patients (50 F, 42 M) were analyzed. At diagnosis, most had macroprolactinomas (82.6%); males were significantly older than females (P=0.0003) and presented with a more aggressive disease. A genetic basis was identified in 12 patients. Thirty-six patients (39.1%) received only medical therapy, most underwent surgery (60.9%, including multiple interventions in 10.9%), and 14.1% received postoperative radiotherapy. Eight patients developed late CAB resistance (8.7%). The median maximal weekly dose of CAB (CAB(max/w)) was 3.5 mg (2.0-10.5). Despite a higher CAB(max/w) in patients treated with multimodal therapy (P=0.003 vs exclusive pharmacological treatment), a debulking effect of surgery was shown in 14 patients, with a higher rate of PRL control (P=0.006) and a significant reduction in CAB(max/w) (P=0.001) postoperatively. At last follow-up (median 88 months), PRL normalization and tumor disappearance were achieved in 28 and 19.9% of the patients respectively, with no significant sex-related difference observed in CAB(max/w) or disease control. Mortality was 4.8%, with four patients developing aggressive tumors (4.3%) and three a pituitary carcinoma (3.3%).

CONCLUSION:

CAB-resistant prolactinomas remain a serious concern. Surgical debulking, newer therapeutic strategies, and early diagnosis of genetic forms could help to improve their outcome.

PMID:
22918301
DOI:
10.1530/EJE-12-0236
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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