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J Nutr Biochem. 2013 May;24(5):877-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.06.001. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

High multivitamin intakes during pregnancy and postweaning obesogenic diets interact to affect the relationship between expression of PPAR genes and glucose regulation in the offspring.

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Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3E2.


High multivitamin intake (HV) during pregnancy increases body fat and weight and alters glucose and fatty acid metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. This study investigated the expression of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) genes involved in regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism in their tissues. Dams received the AIN-93G diet with either the regular (RV) or 10-fold multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy. Male offspring were weaned to either the RV diet (RV-RV and HV-RV) or an obesogenic diet (RV-Ob and HV-Ob). Gene expression of PPARs in tissues was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Gestational diet (GD) did not affect PPARs gene expression in offspring at either birth or weaning. In liver, at 14 weeks postweaning, PPAR-γ was 30% lower in the HV-RV and 30% higher in HV-Ob than in the RV-RV group [GD P=.76, postweaning diet (PD) P=.19, interaction P=.02, by two-way analysis of variance]. In muscle, PPAR-α expression was affected by GD and PD (GD P=.05, PD P<.01, interaction P=.07). In adipose tissue, PPAR-α expression was higher in all groups compared to RV-RV (GD P=.25, PD P=.85, interaction P=.03). PPAR-γ mRNA levels correlated with abdominal fat (r=0.45, P<.05) and insulin resistance index (r=0.39, P<.05). In liver, PPAR-γ expression correlated with insulin resistance index in offspring from RV (r=-0.62, P<.05), but not in those from HV dams (r=0.13, P>.05). In conclusion, the HV diet during pregnancy interacts with postweaning diets in determining the expression of PPARs genes in a tissue- and age-dependent manner and uncouples the relationship between these genes and glucose regulation and fat mass in the rat offspring.

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