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J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012 Sep;24(5):903-10. doi: 10.1177/1040638712456975.

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel strongly hemolytic Brachyspira species, provisionally designated "Brachyspira hampsonii".

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Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.


Since 2007, outbreaks of severe bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis have been reported in the United States and Canada. Though the primary causative agent of swine dysentery is Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which is strongly hemolytic, the current report describes the isolation of a novel strongly hemolytic Brachyspira sp. This novel Brachyspira sp. was identified from clinical submissions at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, and 40 of such isolates were obtained from 22 clinical submissions representing 5 states. Isolates were confirmed to be different from any known Brachyspira sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of nox and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Phylogenetic analyses grouped all isolates into 2 clades (clades I and II), and grouping patterns were similar for both nox and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Phenotypically, all isolates were indole and hippurate negative, and enzymatic profiling indicated 2 types of profiles, irrespective of the phylogenetic grouping, differing only in the production of β-glucosidase. The results suggest that a potentially virulent new species of Brachyspira sp., provisionally named "Brachyspira hampsonii ", is circulating among swine herds in the United States.

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