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Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2013 May;21(3):254-7. doi: 10.1097/PAI.0b013e3182642c9c.

Glutamine synthetase, heat shock protein-70, and glypican-3 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and tumors metastatic to liver.

Author information

1
Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. sml_2179@columbia.edu

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Glutamine synthetase (GS), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), and glypican-3 (GPC-3) are markers best characterized in hepatocellular lesions, where they are useful in distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma from dysplastic nodules. Their staining patterns in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IH-ChCa) and metastatic tumors in liver are not well described.

METHODS:

Tissue microarrays containing 41 IH-ChCa and 24 metastatic tumors in liver were stained with commercially available antibodies to GS, HSP-70, and GPC-3. Five percent staining of tumor cells was considered positive for HSP-70 and GPC-3. For GS, 50% was the cut-off.

RESULTS:

GS reactivity was present in 31 of 41 IH-ChCa (76%), with the median amount of staining being 65% of tumor cells. HSP-70 reactivity was present in 36 of 41 IH-ChCa (88%) with the median amount of staining being 75% of tumor cells. GPC-3 reactivity was absent from all IH-ChCa. Twenty-seven of 41 IH-ChCa cases were positive for both GS and HSP-70 (66%). GS reactivity was present in 17 of 24 tumors metastatic to liver (71%), with the median amount of staining being 50% of tumor cells. HSP-70 reactivity was present in 21 of 24 tumors metastatic to liver (88%) with the median amount of staining being 80% of tumor cells. GPC-3 reactivity was present in 2 of 24 tumors metastatic to liver (8%) with one showing 5% staining and the other showing 50% staining of tumor cells. Fifteen of 24 cases were positive for both GS and HSP-70 (63%), and 2 cases were positive for all 3 markers (8%).

DISCUSSION:

Of the panel of immunostains currently commonly used to distinguish hepatocellular carcinoma from dysplastic hepatocytic nodules, only GPC-3 did not react frequently with metastatic tumors and IH-ChCa, although there was staining in 2 metastatic tumors. GS and HSP-70 are typically positive in IH-ChCa and metastatic tumors. Nothing should be inferred about the histogenesis of a tumor based on positive staining with either of these 2 markers, which currently have no role in tumor of unknown origin panels.

PMID:
22914614
DOI:
10.1097/PAI.0b013e3182642c9c
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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