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J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar;48(3):340-9. doi: 10.1007/s00535-012-0649-1. Epub 2012 Aug 22.

Lifestyle factors associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Japanese population.

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Department of Gastroenterology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017, Japan.



We aimed to clarify the lifestyle factors associated with erosive esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) in a Japanese population.


Among 886 subjects who underwent health screening, we selected, according to their scores on the FSSG (frequency scale for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease; GERD) questionnaire and the findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 138 subjects with erosive esophagitis (EE), 148 subjects with NERD (absence of esophagitis, FSSG score ≥8, and acid reflux-related symptoms score ≥4), and 565 control subjects (absence of esophagitis and FSSG score ≤7). We compared clinical characteristics and various lifestyle factors in these three groups.


The lifestyle factors significantly associated with NERD compared with findings in the control group were intake of egg (odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.50), sleep shortage (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.54-3.88), and strong psychological stress (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.18-2.62). In male subjects, current smoking (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.13-3.74; OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.09-3.20) was a significant risk factor for both NERD and EE. Moreover, alcohol >200 kcal/day (OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.03-15.55) and intake of a large quantity of food at supper (OR 7.85, 95% CI 1.66-37.05) were significant risk factors for EE in subjects with hiatal hernia. Intake of a large quantity of food at supper (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.06-4.13) was more common in the NERD group than in the EE group.


There were differences in the associated lifestyle factors between patients with NERD and those with EE, and there was also a gender-related difference between these groups.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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