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Transpl Int. 2013 Jan;26(1):2-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2012.01549.x. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Innate immunity and organ transplantation: focus on lung transplantation.

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Department of Surgery, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.


Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) that occurs with solid organ transplantation activates the innate immune system to induce inflammation. This leads to enhanced acute allograft rejection, impaired transplant tolerance and accelerated progression of chronic rejection. In this review, we discuss the innate immune signaling pathways that have been shown to play a role in organ transplantation. In particular, we focus on Toll-like receptor signaling pathways and how they have influenced outcomes after organ transplantation both experimentally and from clinical studies. Furthermore, we describe the substances that trigger the innate immune system after transplantation and several of the key cellular mediators of inflammation. We specifically point out unique aspects of activation of the innate immune system after lung transplantation. Finally, we discuss the areas that should be investigated in the future to more clearly understand the influence of the innate immune system after organ transplantation.

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