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Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;25(5):578-83. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e328357e65c.

Advances in hepatitis immunization (A, B, E): public health policy and novel vaccine delivery.

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  • 1Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board, Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Diseases Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium.



This review offers an update on hepatitis A, B and E vaccines based on relevant literature published in 2011-2012. Hepatitis A and B vaccines have been commercially available for years; however, the development of the hepatitis E vaccine is still facing some challenges.


Current scientific evidence shows that both hepatitis A and B vaccines confer long-term protection. These data supported the updated recommendations from the WHO on hepatitis A and B vaccines and the respective booster policy. In addition, a single-dose hepatitis A vaccination programme may be an option for some intermediate endemic countries, as far as the epidemiological situation is further monitored. Recent data illustrate the co-administration of hepatitis A with infant vaccines, as well as the interchangeability with other hepatitis A vaccines. Two genetically engineered hepatitis E vaccines are currently in development, showing more than 95% protective efficacy.


Follow-up of vaccinated individuals confirms the long-term protection offered by the hepatitis A as well as hepatitis B vaccines. Data confirm the safety and immunogenicity profile of both vaccines, also when used in patient groups. The first data on the hepatitis E vaccine look promising, but questions on cross-protection, long-term efficacy and safety and immunogenicity in pregnant women and children less than 2 years remain unanswered.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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