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Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Dec 1;8(12):1784-94. doi: 10.4161/hv.21827. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Immune reconstitution and vaccination outcome in HIV-1 infected children: present knowledge and future directions.

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University Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy.


Current evidence on routine immunization of HIV-1 infected children point out the need for a special vaccine schedule in this population. However, optimal strategies for identifying individuals susceptible to infections, and then offering them sustained protection through appropriate immunization schedule, both in terms of timing and number of vaccine doses, still remain to be elucidated. Understanding the degree of immune recovery after HAART initiation is important in guiding administration of routine vaccination in HIV-1 infected children. Although quantitative measures (e.g., CD4+ T-cell counts and immunoglobulin levels) are frequently performed to evaluate immune parameters, these measures do not fully mirror functional immune recovery. Here, we will review the status of single mandatory and recommended vaccines for HIV-1 infected children in relation to immune recovery after HAART initiation with the aim of identifying new means to help design personalized vaccine schedules for this population.


AIDS; HAART; immunization schedule; protective immune responses; vertical infection

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