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Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Mar;113(3):651-9. doi: 10.1007/s00421-012-2468-8. Epub 2012 Aug 18.

Relation between efficiency and energy cost with coordination in aquatic locomotion.

Author information

1
Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. spafg@vodafone.pt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish the relationships between the intracycle velocity variation (IVV) and Froude efficiency (η(T)), energy cost (C), and index of coordination (IdC) throughout a 200-m freestyle race. Ten male international level swimmers performed a maximum 200 m front crawl swim. Performance was recorded with four below- and two above-water synchronized cameras. Oxygen consumption was measured continuously during the effort, and blood samples were collected before and after the test. IdC, body center of mass' IVV (x, y and z), and η(T) were also calculated. For assessing C swimmers performed also 50, 100 and 150 m at the same pace as in the 200-m splits to capture blood lactate samples after each 50-m lap of the 200-m effort. Swimmers attained a stable IVV (x, y, and z), as fatigue development along the 200-m effort induced a decrease in velocity, stroke length, stroke frequency, η(T), and an increase of IdC. Direct relationships between C and IdC for the second and fourth lap were found: R = 0.63 and R = 0.69 (P < 0.05), respectively. Computing partial correlation, also IdC and η(T) in the first lap were significantly correlated (R = -0.63, P < 0.05). IdC and η(T) showed to be significant for the within-subjects correlation (R = -0.45, P = 0.01), and IdC and C for the between-subjects correlation (R = 0.66, P = 0.04). Patterns of coordination modified during the 200-m event in response to the task constraints, observed by the changes in the other studied parameters, and allowing the IVV stability along the effort.

PMID:
22903863
DOI:
10.1007/s00421-012-2468-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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