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Science. 2012 Sep 7;337(6099):1212-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1218919. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Predatory fish select for coordinated collective motion in virtual prey.

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Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.


Movement in animal groups is highly varied and ranges from seemingly disordered motion in swarms to coordinated aligned motion in flocks and schools. These social interactions are often thought to reduce risk from predators, despite a lack of direct evidence. We investigated risk-related selection for collective motion by allowing real predators (bluegill sunfish) to hunt mobile virtual prey. By fusing simulated and real animal behavior, we isolated predator effects while controlling for confounding factors. Prey with a tendency to be attracted toward, and to align direction of travel with, near neighbors tended to form mobile coordinated groups and were rarely attacked. These results demonstrate that collective motion could evolve as a response to predation, without prey being able to detect and respond to predators.

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