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Vaccine. 2012 Sep 28;30(44):6287-93. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.08.006. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

A randomized control trial comparing immunogenicity, safety, and preference for self- versus nurse-administered intradermal influenza vaccine.

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Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Microbiology, Toronto, Canada.



Intradermally administered influenza vaccine is as immunogenic as intramuscular vaccine at a lower unit dose. New microinjection systems could allow self-administration of vaccine, potentially reducing the cost and inconvenience.


To compare the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, success rate, and acceptability of self- versus nurse-administered intradermal trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine.


Adults (18-59 years old) were randomized to either self- or nurse-administered intradermal vaccine. Prior to vaccination, participants completed a questionnaire and had blood drawn for hemagglutination inhibition titres. Participants in the nurse-administered group were vaccinated by study personnel. The self-administered group were given an instruction sheet and administered their own vaccine. All participants completed a questionnaire and adverse event diaries for 21 days post vaccination, at which time blood was again collected.


Of the 228 participants, 115 were randomized to self-administration and 113 to nurse administration. Groups did not differ by sex, age, or levels of seroprotection at baseline. Of the 114 who completed self-administration, 106 (93%) were successful on the first attempt. There were no group differences in measures of immunogenicity for any of the strains. Self-administering participants reported a lower mean pain rating at vaccination but had larger areas of redness post-vaccination. Seventy percent of all participants said they would prefer intradermal over intramuscular vaccinations in the future, if given the choice.


Compared to nurse-administered intradermal influenza vaccine, self-administered vaccine was immunologically non-inferior and reached all EMA immunogenicity criteria for the A strains, was highly successful and well-accepted by study participants. Together, these data provide preliminary evidence of feasibility for this method of influenza vaccine administration, which may improve vaccine uptake in adults and increase efficiency of vaccine delivery during outbreaks.


[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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