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Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Dec;10(12):1412-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2012.08.011. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma among US patients with cirrhosis of viral or nonviral etiologies.

Author information

1
Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

We aimed to identify risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis in the United States. We performed a prospective study to identify associations between etiologies of cirrhosis and ethnicity with HCC incidence.

METHODS:

We used convenience sampling to select a cohort of 379 patients with cirrhosis who visited the liver clinic at the Stanford University Medical Center from 2001 to 2009 (65% male, 75% white or Hispanic, and 20% Asian). Study end points were HCC diagnosis by histology or noninvasive criteria, liver transplantation, or last screening without HCC. Patients were followed up, with ultrasound or computed tomographic imaging analyses and measurements of serum levels of α-fetoprotein, approximately every 6 months, for a median time of 34 months (range, 6-99 mo).

RESULTS:

The etiologies of cirrhosis in the cohort were 68% hepatitis C, 7% hepatitis B, and 25% nonviral. Forty-four patients (12%) were diagnosed with HCC during the follow-up period. Patients with cirrhosis related to viral hepatitis had a statistically significantly higher incidence of HCC than those with nonviral diseases in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = .04). There was no statistically significant difference in HCC incidence between Asian and non-Asian patients. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model that included age, sex, ethnicity, etiology, and Child-Pugh-Turcotte score, viral cirrhosis was associated significantly with HCC, compared with nonviral cirrhosis (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-10.1; P = .02) but Asian ethnicity was not.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a diverse cohort of patients in the United States with cirrhosis, a viral etiology of cirrhosis was associated with increased incidence of HCC, but Asian ethnicity was not. These findings indicate the importance of cirrhosis etiology in determining risk for HCC.

PMID:
22902757
PMCID:
PMC3511850
DOI:
10.1016/j.cgh.2012.08.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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