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Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Aug;23(8):744-50. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2012.04.008. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

Changes in daily leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin profiles following a diet with carbohydrates eaten at dinner in obese subjects.

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The Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Institute of Biochemistry and Food Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel.



Our recently published randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten at dinner. This dietary pattern led to lower hunger scores, and better anthropometric, biochemical and inflammatory outcomes compared to a standard low-calorie diet. In the same study, changes in diurnal secretion patterns of leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin were investigated.


Seventy-eight police officers (body mass index (BMI) > 30) were randomly allocated to experimental (carbohydrates at dinner) or control weight loss diets for 6 months. Sixty-three subjects finished the programme. On days 0, 7, 90 and 180 blood samples and hunger scores were collected every 4 h from 8:00 to 20:00. Hormonal profiles were available for 39. The dietary manipulation led to changes in daylight hormonal profiles in the experimental group. Leptin's secretion curve became convex, with a nadir later in the day (significant difference compared to baseline at morning and evening, p = 0.023, p = 0.021, respectively). Ghrelin's secretion curve became concave, peaking only in the evening hours. Adiponectin's curve was elevated only after the experimental diet (significant difference compared to baseline at afternoon, p = 0.044).


We propose that a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten at dinner can modulate daytime hormonal profiles. Taken together with our earlier results, we believe this diet regime may prevent mid-day hunger, better support weight loss and improve metabolic outcomes compared to conventional weight loss diets. The trial is registered at, ISRCTN37829376, December 2009.


Adiponectin; Carbohydrates; Ghrelin; Hunger; Leptin; Metabolic syndrome; Satiety

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