Format

Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43011. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043011. Epub 2012 Aug 10.

Gene pyramiding of peptidase inhibitors enhances plant resistance to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

Author information

1
Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas (UPM-INIA). Campus Montegancedo Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Autopista M40 (km 38), Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a damaging pest worldwide with a wide range of host plants and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Recently, the complete T. urticae genome has been published and showed a proliferation of gene families associated with digestion and detoxification of plant secondary compounds which supports its polyphagous behaviour. To overcome spider mite adaptability a gene pyramiding approach has been developed by co-expressing two barley proteases inhibitors, the cystatin Icy6 and the trypsin inhibitor Itr1 genes in Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence and expression of both transgenes was studied by conventional and quantitative real time RT-PCR assays and by indirect ELISA assays. The inhibitory activity of cystatin and trypsin inhibitor was in vitro analysed using specific substrates. Single and double transformants were used to assess the effects of spider mite infestation. Double transformed lines showed the lowest damaged leaf area in comparison to single transformants and non-transformed controls and different accumulation of H(2)O(2) as defence response in the leaf feeding site, detected by diaminobenzidine staining. Additionally, an impact on endogenous mite cathepsin B- and L-like activities was observed after feeding on Arabidopsis lines, which correlates with a significant increase in the mortality of mites fed on transformed plants. These effects were analysed in view of the expression levels of the target mite protease genes, C1A cysteine peptidase and S1 serine peptidase, identified in the four developmental mite stages (embryo, larvae, nymphs and adults) performed using the RNA-seq information available at the BOGAS T. urticae database. The potential of pyramiding different classes of plant protease inhibitors to prevent plant damage caused by mites as a new tool to prevent pest resistance and to improve pest control is discussed.

PMID:
22900081
PMCID:
PMC3416837
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0043011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center