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J Biol Chem. 2012 Oct 5;287(41):34474-83. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.401406. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Toll or interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-mediated caspase-11 protease production integrates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein- and Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated host defense against enteropathogens.

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  • 1Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.


Enteric pathogens represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and inflammasome signaling are critical for host responses against these pathogens, but how these pathways are integrated remains unclear. Here, we show that TLR4 and the TLR adaptor TRIF are required for inflammasome activation in macrophages infected with the enteric pathogens Escherichia coli and Citrobacter rodentium. In contrast, TLR4 and TRIF were dispensable for Salmonella typhimurium-induced caspase-1 activation. TRIF regulated expression of caspase-11, a caspase-1-related protease that is critical for E. coli- and C. rodentium-induced inflammasome activation, but dispensable for inflammasome activation by S. typhimurium. Thus, TLR4- and TRIF-induced caspase-11 synthesis is critical for noncanonical Nlrp3 inflammasome activation in macrophages infected with enteric pathogens.

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