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Appetite. 2012 Dec;59(3):693-7. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.08.007. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

Theory of Planned Behavior explains gender difference in fruit and vegetable consumption.

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Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 0001, USA.


A gender difference in fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) is widely documented, but not well understood. Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey, we assessed the extent to which gender differences in FVI are attributable to gender differences in constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Females reported more favorable attitudes and greater perceived behavior control regarding FVI than males, and these beliefs mediated the observed gender difference. Males reported greater perceived norms for FVI, but norms did not predict FVI. Gender did not moderate the influence of TPB constructs on FVI. Thus, TPB constructs substantially explained the gender difference. Interventions targeted toward adult males may benefit by promoting favorable attitudes and perceived behavioral control over FVI.

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