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Theriogenology. 2012 Oct 1;78(6):1329-38. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.05.034. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

A novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification approach for sex identification of Columbidae birds.

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Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City, Taiwan.


Because it is difficult to differentiate male and female Columbidae birds (e.g., Columba livia) on the basis of morphology, detection of DNA fragments associated with Chromobox-Helicase-DNA binding genes or female-specific genes have been widely used. The objective was to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification system involving the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and a female-specific gene for sex identification of Columba livia birds. Unlike polymerase chain reaction (PCR), random amplification polymorphic DNA-PCR and amplified fragment length polymorphism-PCR, target DNA was amplified under isothermal conditions (the entire process was completed in <60 min). By modulating various parameters involved in amplification, e.g., concentrations of MgSO(4), betaine, Bst polymerase, and deoxynucleotide triphosphates, as well as the relative ratio of outer/inner primers and temperatures, optimal conditions for both targets were established that had equal detection limits (62.5 ng). To simplify sex determination, direct observations of the presence of white precipitate (derived from magnesium pyrophosphates) were used for positive samples, which was compared with the whitish ring which formed in a negative sample after addition of CuSO(4). This approach was a rapid alternative to electrophoresis or turbidimetry. DNA extracted from the blood and feathers of various birds were tested using loop-mediated isothermal amplification; results were consistent with a standard PCR. Thus, the assay was a simple, accurate, fast, and economical alternative suitable for veterinary practice.

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