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J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Sep 12;60(36):9120-9. doi: 10.1021/jf3022018. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Anti-inflammatory activities of an ethanol extract of Ecklonia stolonifera in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells.

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Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, South Korea.


Ecklonia stolonifera is a brown alga that was shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, tyrosinase inhibitory, and chemopreventive activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of E. stolonifera ethanolic extracts (ESE) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. ESE inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (IC(50) = 72 ± 1.9 μg/mL) and prostaglandin E(2) (IC(50) = 98 ± 5.3 μg/mL) production in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. ESE also reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and NF-κB translocation into the nucleus were significantly inhibited by ESE treatment through the prevention of the degradation of inhibitor κB-α. Moreover, ESE inhibited the activation of Akt, ERK, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The main components with anti-inflammatory activity in ESE were identified as phlorofucofuroeckol A and B based on the inhibition of NO production. Our results indicate that ESE can be considered as a potential source of therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases.

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