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Disabil Rehabil. 2013 May;35(9):749-57. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2012.707741. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Problems in functioning after a mild traumatic brain injury within the ICF framework: the patient perspective using focus groups.

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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.



To describe problems in body functions, activities, and participation and the influence of environmental factors as experienced after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), using the ICF framework. To compare our findings with the Brief and Comprehensive ICF Core Sets for TBI.


Six focus-group interviews were performed with 17 participants (nine women, eight men, age ranged from 22 to 55 years) within the context of an outpatient rehabilitation programme for patients with mild TBI. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the ICF.


One-hundred and eight second-level categories derived from the interview text, showing a large diversity of TBI-related problems in functioning. Problems in cognitive and emotional functions, energy and drive, and in carrying out daily routine and work, were frequently reported. All ICF categories reported with high-to-moderate frequencies were present in the Brief ICF Core Set and 84% in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set. The reported environmental factors mainly concerned aspects of health and social security systems, social network and attitudes towards the injured person.


This study confirms the diversity of problems and the environmental factors that have an impact on post-injury functioning of patients with mild TBI.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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