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Nat Commun. 2012;3:1005. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1985.

Antenna electrodes for controlling electroluminescence.

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Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Optical antennas can control the emission from quantum emitters by modifying the local density of optical states via the Purcell effect. A variety of nanometallic antennas have been implemented to enhance and control key photoluminescence properties, such as the decay rate, directionality and polarization. However, their implementation in active devices has been hampered by the need to precisely place emitters near an antenna and to efficiently excite them electrically. Here we illustrate a design methodology for antenna electrodes that for the first time facilitates simultaneous operation as electrodes for current injection and as antennas capable of optically manipulating the electroluminescence. We show that by confining the electrically excited carriers to the vicinity of antenna electrodes and maximizing the optical coupling of the emission to a single, well-defined antenna mode, their electroluminescence can be effectively controlled. This work spurs the development of densely integrated, electrically driven light sources with tailored emission properties.


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