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Pancreas. 2012 Nov;41(8):1306-15. doi: 10.1097/MPA.0b013e31824d64d9.

Apigenin inhibits NNK-induced focal adhesion kinase activation in pancreatic cancer cells.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Veterans Affair Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA. zero@ucla.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Tobacco-derived carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) activates β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling through Src/focal adhesion kinases (FAKs)/mitogen-activated protein kinase to modulate proliferation, migration, and survival. Apigenin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) is reported to attenuate proliferation and migration of cancer cells. This study was designed to determine the effects of apigenin on NNK-induced procarcinogenesis using human pancreatic cancer cells BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2, which express β-AR.

METHODS:

Proliferation and migration were assessed by standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and scratch assays. β-AR, FAK/mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression and activation were assessed by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS:

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cell proliferation that was inhibited by propranolol or apigenin. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone also stimulated a time-dependent increase in FAK and ERK activation that was suppressed by propranolol or apigenin. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-enhanced gap closure at 24 hours was prevented by either propranolol or apigenin.

CONCLUSION:

Apigenin suppressed the effects of NNK on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and migration that are mediated through the β-AR and its downstream signals FAK and ERK activation. These findings suggest a therapeutic role for this natural phytochemical in attenuating the procarcinogenic effects of NNK on pancreatic cancer proliferation and migration.

PMID:
22889981
PMCID:
PMC3479318
DOI:
10.1097/MPA.0b013e31824d64d9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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