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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Dec;25(12):2570-4. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.715220. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

Calcium supplementation and prevention of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

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Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Neonatology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.



Since the early 1980s, epidemiological evidence has suggested a connection between low calcium intake and preeclampsia The purpose of this meta-analysis is to summarize current evidence regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy in predicting preeclampsia and associated maternal-fetal complications.


Literature revision of all RCT (random allocation of calcium versus placebo) available in MEDLINE/PUBMED up to 2/29/2012 regarding calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing preeclampsia. We used the Mantel-Haenszel's Method for four subgroup of patients: Adequate calcium intake; Low calcium intake; Low risk of preeclampsia; High risk of preeclampsia. We considered p < 0.05 as significant.


There is no consensus in Literature about: (1) the efficacy of calcium supplementation in the prevention of preeclampsia, (2) other/adverse/long-term effects of calcium supplementation in pregnancy.


Preeclampsia is likely to be a multifactorial disease. However, inadequate calcium intake represents a factor associated with an increased incidence of hypertensive disease. The results of our meta-analysis demonstrate that the additional intake of calcium during pregnancy is an effective measure to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia, especially in populations at high risk of preeclampsia due to ethnicity, gender, age, high BMI and in those with low baseline calcium intake.

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