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Brain Res. 2012 Sep 26;1475:96-105. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.07.058. Epub 2012 Aug 4.

Characterization of inflammatory gene expression and galectin-3 function after spinal cord injury in mice.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University Medical Center, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

Abstract

Inflammation has long been implicated in secondary tissue damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Our previous studies of inflammatory gene expression in rats after SCI revealed two temporally correlated clusters: the first was expressed early after injury and the second was up-regulated later, with peak expression at 1-2 weeks and persistent up-regulation through 6 months. To further address the role of inflammation after SCI, we examined inflammatory genes in a second species, mice, through 28 days after SCI. Using anchor gene clustering analysis, we found similar expression patterns for both the acute and chronic gene clusters previously identified after rat SCI. The acute group returned to normal expression levels by 7 days post injury. The chronic group, which included C1qB, p22(phox) and galectin-3, showed peak expression at 7 days and remained up-regulated through 28 days. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that the protein expression of these genes was consistent with the mRNA expression. Further exploration of the role of one of these genes, galectin-3, suggests that galectin-3 may contribute to secondary injury. In summary, our findings extend our prior gene profiling data by demonstrating the chronic expression of a cluster of microglial associated inflammatory genes after SCI in mice. Moreover, by demonstrating that inhibition of one such factor improves recovery, the findings suggest that such chronic up-regulation of inflammatory processes may contribute to secondary tissue damage after SCI, and that there may be a broader therapeutic window for neuroprotection than generally accepted.

PMID:
22884909
PMCID:
PMC3433585
DOI:
10.1016/j.brainres.2012.07.058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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