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Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012 May;47(5):281-6. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1002-0098.2012.05.007.

[Effects of three at-home bleaching agents on enamel structure and structure-related mechanical properties].

[Article in Chinese]

Author information

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University,Wuhan 430079, China. Email:



To investigate the effects of three differently concentrated at-home bleaching agents on the structure and the structure-related mechanical properties of human enamel.


Sixty enamel specimens were randomly divided into four groups and treated with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP), 15% CP, 20% CP and distilled water, respectively. The bleaching process was 8 h/day for 14 consecutive days. Baseline and final atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface detection, Raman spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), microhardness and fracture toughness (FT) measurements were carried out before and after bleaching experiments.


CP didn't change the morphology of enamel. Meanwhile, the three bleached groups and the control group had no significant difference in root mean square detection (P = 0.774), ν(2)CO(3)(2-) : ν(1)ν(3)PO(4)(3-) (P = 0.263) and microhardness (P = 0.829). The percentage of relative Raman intensity in the three bleached groups and the control group were (105.74 ± 11.34)%, (104.46 ± 8.83)%, (99.52 ± 9.32)% and (97.62 ± 7.46)%, respectively. There was no significant difference among them (P = 0.062). However, the percentage of laser-induced fluorescence in the three bleached groups and the control group were (20.86 ± 7.23)%, (22.14 ± 7.34)%, (21.10 ± 7.59)% and (100.78 ± 3.70)%, respectively. There was significant difference between either of the bleached groups and the control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, FT declined significantly in the three groups (P = 0.024, P = 0.005, P = 0.013) when compared with the control group.


Under in vitro condition, three differently concentrated at-home bleaching agents wouldn't induce the demineralization and the decline of microhardness on enamel. However, the decrease of FT on enamel seemed to be inevitable after bleaching.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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