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Pediatr Int. 2012 Dec;54(6):858-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2012.03709.x. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Risk factors for community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by ESBL-producing bacteria in children.

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Department of Pediatrics, Bakirkoy Maternity and Children's Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.



The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors of antimicrobial resistance in children with urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria.


A total of 344 patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI) between January 2008 and December 2009 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Causative microorganisms were ESBL-producing bacteria in 148 patients and non-ESBL-producing bacteria in 196 patients. There was no difference between the two groups regarding distribution of age, sex and length of follow up.


The most frequent causative agent was Escherichia coli, of which 41.4% were ESBL producing. Among Klebsiella species, 53.2% were ESBL producing. The proportion of ESBL-producing bacteria that were resistant to antibiotics was 83.1% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 18.2% for nitrofurantoin, 47.3% for quinolones, and 39.9% for aminoglycosides. For non-ESBL-producing bacteria, the resistance rate was 62.2% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 4.6% for nitrofurantoin, 9.7% for quinolones, and 9.7% for aminoglycosides. Age <1 year, high UTI recurrence rate, long duration of prophylaxis, use of cephalosporins for prophylaxis, hospitalization within the previous 3 months and clean intermittent catheterization were found to be significant risk factors for ESBL-producing bacteria (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified age <1 year and high recurrence UTI rate to be independent risk factors, increasing the risk 1.74-fold and 2.25-fold, respectively.


Recognition of the risk factors for ESBL-producing bacteria may be helpful to determine new policies in the management of UTI. Recurrence of UTI should be prevented especially in the first year of life, and prophylactic cephalosporins should be avoided.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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