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Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013 Jan;69(1):12-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.01183.x. Epub 2012 Aug 8.

Current trends of reproductive immunology practices in in vitro fertilization (IVF) - a first world survey using

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine, The Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, Vernon Hills, IL 60061, USA.



Reproductive immunology has evolved from basic research studies to clinical applications. In this study, we aim to investigate the actual application of reproductive immunology concepts and findings in clinical reproductive medicine such as recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL), repeated implantation failures (RIF), and failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles.


A web-based survey was performed on Collected data were analyzed by the computerized software.


A significant proportion of physicians recommend thrombophilia workups (86%), parental genetic study (79%), and immunologic evaluations (69%) to IVF candidates who have a history of RPL or chemical pregnancy losses. IVF physicians consider an immunologic workup when patients have two (30%) or three (21%) failed IVF cycles. Assays for anticardiolipin antibody, lupus anticoagulant, thyroid peroxidase antibody, and antinuclear antibody are the four most commonly ordered immunologic tests for RPL (88, 84, 50, 47% each) and RIF (68, 63, 38, 38% each). Cellular immune evaluations, such as NK assay, human leukocyte antigen study, Th1/Th2 study or immunophenotype assay, are less commonly ordered.


Reproductive immunology principles have been applied to the clinical management of RPL, RIF, and failed IVF cycles, and a significant proportion of IVF physicians acknowledge the importance of immunologic alterations with reproductive outcomes.

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